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From until , a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2.
From until two, or later three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either completely or partially in promotion play-offs.
The season starts in early August  and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks mid-December through to the end of January.
In recent years, games have been played on Saturdays five games beginning at 3: A new television deal in reintroduced a Friday game beginning at 8: Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in , part-time semi- professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen Premier Leagues remained.
Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship.
At the international level the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries.
The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots. The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia 0—1 in a World Cup quarter-final game in Chile was one impetus of many towards the formation of a national league.
East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August Dynamo Dresden and F.
Hansa Rostock were seeded into the top-tier Bundesliga division, with other clubs being sorted into lower tiers.
The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga. Each club plays every other club once at home and once away.
Originally, a victory was worth two points, with one point for a draw and none for a loss. Since the —96 season, a victory has been worth three points, while a draw remains worth a single point, and zero points are given for a loss.
The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champion. Currently, the top three clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League , while the fourth-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round see overview.
The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2. The 16th-placed team third-last , and the third-placed team in the 2.
Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match. The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2.
If two clubs are still tied after all of these tie-breakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement.
However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga. In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives.
Seven substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game. That year it was the only European football league where clubs collectively made a profit.
By contrast, in the other major European leagues, numerous high-profile teams have come under ownership of foreign billionaires, and a significant number of clubs have high levels of debt.
After the German Football Association and the Bundesliga mandated that all clubs run a youth academy , with the aim of bolstering the stream of local talent for the club and national team.
This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players.
In the first decade of the third millennium s , the Bundesliga was regarded as competitive, as five teams have won the league title. At the end of each season, clubs in the Bundesliga must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval.
In addition, no individual is allowed to own more than 49 percent of any Bundesliga club, the only exceptions being VfL Wolfsburg , Bayer Leverkusen and current Regionalliga Nordost member FC Carl Zeiss Jena should they ever be promoted to the Bundesliga as they were each founded as factory teams.
Despite the good economic governance, there have still been some instances of clubs getting into difficulties. In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players.
Based on its per-game average, the Bundesliga is the best-attended association football league in the world; out of all sports, its average of 45, fans per game during the —12 season was the second highest of any professional sports league worldwide, behind only the National Football League of the United States.
Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans by comparison, stadia in the English Premier League are all-seaters due to the Taylor Report.
Match tickets often double as free rail passes which encourages supporters to travel and celebrate in a relaxed atmosphere. They are very fan orientated".
Football has got to be for everybody. The spectator figures for league for the last eleven seasons:. The Bundesliga broadcast rights are sold along with the broadcast rights to the Bundesliga Relegation Playoffs, 2.
Three Friday night matches — the openers of the first and second halves of the season, and on the final matchday before the winter break — are broadcast to all Germans on ZDF.
Radio coverage includes the national Konferenz whip-around coverage on the stations of ARD and full match coverage on local radio stations. The Bundesliga is broadcast on TV in over countries.
In October , 21st Century Fox , via the Fox Sports , Fox International Channels , and Sky plc divisions, acquired television and digital rights to the Bundesliga in 80 territories, including North America and Asia outside of India and Oceania for five years, and selected European territories for two years, beginning in the —16 season.
CEO James Murdoch explained that the deal was designed to "leverage our unrivaled global portfolio of sports channels to bolster the Bundesliga brand in every corner of the globe.
Spanish-language telecasts air on Fox Deportes. Matches stream online for subscribers to these channels on participating providers via Fox Sports Go , and are also available through the subscription service Fox Soccer Match Pass.
ITV4 broadcasts delayed highlights the following Monday. This arrangement lasts through the season. In , digital TV operator StarTimes acquired exclusive television rights for Sub-Saharan Africa for 5 years starting from season.
The following 12 clubs have won the Bundesliga: No club from former East Germany or Berlin has won the Bundesliga. The former East German side Dynamo Berlin laid claim to the three stars of a time champion.
They petitioned the league to have their DDR-Oberliga titles recognized, but received no reply. Dynamo eventually took matters into their own hands and emblazoned their jerseys with three stars.
The issue also affects other former East German and pre-Bundesliga champions. BFC Dynamo Berlin have not followed this guideline and continue to wear three stars, rather than a single star inscribed with the number These stars are a permanent part of their crest.
Since June , the following clubs have been officially allowed to wear stars while playing in the Bundesliga. The number in parentheses is for Bundesliga titles won.
In addition, a system of one star designation was adopted for use. This system is intended to take into account not only Bundesliga titles but also other now defunct national championships.
As of July , the following clubs are allowed to wear one star while playing outside the Bundesliga. The number in parentheses is for total league championships won over the course of German football history, and would be displayed within the star.
Some teams listed here had different names while winning their respective championships, these names are also noted in parentheses. For the first time in , the Bundesliga was given its own logo to distinguish itself.
Six years later, the logo was revamped into a portrait orientation, which was used until A new logo was announced for the —11 season in order to modernise the brand logo for all media platforms.
From , a major reconfiguration of traffic flow along the Bund was carried out. A second phase involved the year-long restoration of the century-old Waibaidu Bridge at the northern end of the Bund.
In a third stage, the former lane Bund roadway was reconstructed in two levels, with six lanes carried in a new tunnel. The vacated road space was used to widen the landscaped promenade along the waterfront.
The Bund was reopened to the public on Sunday 28 March after restoration for the Expo. A stampede occurred on December 31, , at At least 36 people were killed and 47 injured in the incident.
The primary incident  took place near Chen Yi Square , where a large crowd, estimated at around ,, had gathered for the new year celebration.
The bund is one of the most prominent features when viewed from the Shanghai World Financial Center in Pudong and its observation deck on the th floor.
The Bund stretches one mile 1. Zhongshan Road is a largely circular road which formed the traditional conceptual boundary of Shanghai city "proper".
To the west of this stretch of the road stands some 52 buildings of various Western classical and modern styles which is the main feature of the Bund see Architecture and buildings below.
To the east of the road was formerly a stretch of parkland culminating at Huangpu Park. This park is the site of the infamous sign reported to have proclaimed "no dogs or Chinese", although this exact wording never existed.
Further information, including an image of the sign, can be found at the article on Huangpu Park. This area is now much reduced due to the expansion of Zhongshan Road.
Further east is a tall levee, constructed in the s to ward off flood waters. The construction of this high wall has dramatically changed the appearance of the Bund.
Near the Nanjing Road intersection stands what is currently the only bronze statue along the Bund. It is a statue of Chen Yi , the first Communist mayor of Shanghai.
The Bund houses 52 buildings of various architectural styles, generally Eclecticist , but with some buildings displaying predominantly Romanesque Revival , Gothic Revival , Renaissance Revival , Baroque Revival , Neo-Classical or Beaux-Arts styles, and a number in Art Deco style Shanghai has one of the richest collections of Art Deco architectures in the world.
From the south, the main buildings are:. East-1 Zhongshan Road is a major bus route. There were previously frequent ferry services operating by Shanghai Ferry from wharves on and near the Bund.
The most popular remaining ferry service runs from Jinling Road wharf, near the southern end of the Bund, to Dongchang Road wharf, at the southern end of Lujiazui across the river.
A full fare ride on the ferry costs 2 RMB. A number of companies offer Huangpu River cruises boat tours departing from the wharf; all of the major buildings in the Bund, and in Pudong, are illuminated each evening.
A pedestrian transit tunnel crosses the Huangpu River from the Bund. Passengers board slow-moving SK people movers which travel along the tunnel, with light effects projected onto the walls of the tunnel.
These effects are marketed as a tourist attraction; the charge for the tunnel is ten times the fee for crossing the river on Line 2 and 20 times the 2 RMB fee for crossing by ferry.
Ballard , based on his experiences as a boy during the Japanese invasion and occupation. The book was made into a film by Steven Spielberg.
The opening pages of the novel Cryptonomicon by Neal Stephenson are set on the Bund in November , as civil order collapses under the threat of Japanese invasion.
The Bund was featured in the first leg of The Amazing Race From left to right: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bund disambiguation.
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China portal Shanghai portal Architecture portal Geography portal. Archived from the original on 21 June